1830 – John K. Smith opened a pharmacy in Philadelphia. 1848 – Thomas Beecham began Beecham Group, selling Beecham’s Pills laxative in England. 1859 – Beecham Group opened first factory in St Helens, Lancashire (Merseyside). 1865 – Mahlon Kline joined the business with John K. Smith’s pharmacy. 1873 – Joseph Nathan and Co founded in Wellington, NZ by British born Joseph Edward Nathan. 1875 – Mahlon Kline & John Smith’s business became Smith, Kline & Co. 1880 – Burroughs Wellcome & Company founded in London by Henry Wellcome & Silas Burroughs (Americans) 1891 – Smith, Kline & Co. merged with French, Richard and Company 1902 – Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories opened in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan (where the two Niles meet) 1904 – Joseph Nathan and Co began producing dried-milk baby food in Bynnuthorpe, NZ – product called Defiance, then lacto, then Glaxo 1924 – Joseph Nathan and Co first pharmaceutical product was released – Vitamin D 1929 – Smith, Kline & French, Richard and Company became Smith Kline & French Laboratories to focus on research. 1932 – Smith, Kline & Co chemist Gordon A. Alles awarded a patent for amphetamine. 1935 – Glaxo Laboratories was incorporated as a subsidiary in London. 1947 – Glaxo Laboratories restructured, making Glaxo the parent & listing on the London Stock Exchange 1955 – Beecham Group acquired H. W. Carter Bottle, Bristol 1958 – Glaxo acquired Allen & Hanburys 1959 – Burroughs Wellcome acquired Cooper, McDougall & Robertson (veterinary medicine) 1961 – David Jack became director of research (until 1987) for Allen & Hanburys (he started at Glaxo in 1951) 1963 – Smith Kline & French Laboratories acquired Recherche et Industrie Thérapeutiques (Belgian vaccine company, changed the name to SmithKline-RIT) & Norden Laboratories (animal-health research not sure when they acquired) 1969 – Smith Kline & French expanded globally, acquiring 7 laboratories in Canada & the US 1971 – Burroughs Wellcome moved to Research Triangle Park (from Scarsdale Road, Tuckahoe, New York) – Gertrude B. Elion & George H. Hitchings worked there. 1973 – US brought an antitrust suit against Glaxo Group Ltd. & Imperial Chemical Industries (cross-licensed patents – patient pool) charging them with violation of the Sherman Act (unlawful conspiracies) seeking to have the patents declared invalid 1978 – Glaxo acquired Meyer Laboratories 1982 – Smith Kline & French acquired Allergan (eye & skincare products) 1982 – Smith Kline & French merged with Beecham becoming SmithKline Beecham 1983 – Glaxo Inc (American arm of company) moved into Research Triangle Park (high-tech R&D – created in 1959 by state/local governments, local universities & business interests) & Zebulon (manufacturing) in NC 1985 – SmithKline Beecham Group established SR One to invest in new biotechnology companies 1988 – SmithKline Beecham Group acquired International Clinical Laboratories 1989 – SmithKline-RIT became SmithKline Beecham Biologicals 1989 – SmithKline Beecham Biologicals merged with Beecham Group & became SmithKline Beecham P.L.C. (HQ moved from the US to England) 1995 – Glaxo and Wellcome merged into Glaxo Wellcome plc, then restructured R&D. 1995 – Glaxo Wellcome opened a Medicines Research Centre in Stevenage, Hertfordshire (moving from Beckenham, Kent) 1995 – Glaxo Wellcome acquired Affymax (combinatorial chemistry) 1995 – SmithKline Beecham acquired a new research center (not sure where) 1997 – SmithKline Beecham opened a research center, New Frontiers Science Park, Harlow. 2000 – SmithKline Beecham Biologicals became GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals 2000 – Glaxo Wellcome & SmithKline Beecham merged forming GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) 2001 – GlaxoSmithKline – acquired Block Drug (based in New Jersey) 2001 – 35 patients filed class action lawsuit claiming withdrawals from Paxil, which was marketed as non-habit forming – in 2002, a Los Angeles court issued an injunction preventing GSK from advertising paxil as not habit forming. Injunction was withdrawn after FDA objected that courts had no jurisdiction over drug marketing that the FDA had approved. In 2003 World Health Organization reported that Paxil was among the top 30 drugs for which dependence had been reported 2001 – British Advertising Standards Authority required GlaxoSmithKline to withdraw its claim that Ribena Toothkind did not encourage tooth decay 2002 – GlaxoSmithKline opens headquarters in London (GSK House, Brentford). Location officially opened by Tony Blair. 2003 – GlaxoSmithKline formed subsidiary GSK Ventures 2003 – GlaxoSmithKline fined for promoting Paxil to under 18 yrs (from 1998 to 2003) – by 2004 Paxil label had to carry a warning for suicidal behavior un patients under 18 yrs 2004 – Italian police sought bribery charges against 4,400 doctors & 273 GlaxoSmithKline employees (over Topotecan – cancer drug). All charges were dismissed by the Verona court in January 2009. 2005 – Chris Gent (formerly CEO Vodafone) appointed chairman of the board @ GlaxoSmithKline 2006 – Patrick Vallance became Head of Drug Discovery @ GlaxoSmithKline 2006 – GlaxoSmithKline acquires CNS Inc (consumer healthcare – Breathe Right nasal strips & FiberChoice) 2006 – GlaxoSmithKline settled largest tax dispute in IRS history ($3.1 billion – Zantac) intracompany transfer pricing 2007 – GlaxoSmithKline opened its first R&D centre in Shanghai, China (focus on neurodegenerative diseases) 2007 – GlaxoSmithKline fined $217,000 in New Zealand over claim that ready-to-drink Ribena contained high levels of vitamin C, after it was found to contain no detectable vitamin C 2008 – Andrew Witty became CEO @ GlaxoSmithKline (had been with Glaxo since 1985 & GSK’s Pharmaceuticals Europe since 2003) 2009 – GlaxoSmithKline acquired Stiefel Laboratories (dermatology drugs) 2009 – FDA approved GSK’s vaccine for H1N1 influenza (manufactured by ID Biomedical Corp in Canada) 2009 – GlaxoSmithKline creates ViiV Healthcare (HIV research – joint venture with Pfizer) 2010 – GlaxoSmithKline acquired Laboratorios Phoenix (Argentine pharmaceutical company) & Maxinutrition (UK sports nutrition) 2010 – US Department of Justice fined GlaxoSmithKline $150 million criminal & forfeiture, plus civil settlement of $600 million under False Claims Act for production of improperly made & adulterated drugs @ SB Pharmco Puerto Rico Inc., in Cidra, Puerto Rico (Kytril, Bactroban, Paxil & Avandamet. GlaxoSmithKline had closed the factory in 2009. 2011 – Prestige Brands Holdings took over 17 GlaxoSmithKline brands (inc: BC Powder, Beano, Ecotrin, Fiber Choice, Goody’s Powder, Sominex & Tagamet) 2012 – GlaxoSmithKline invested £500 million to build manufacturing facilities in Ulverston, northern England (biotech plant) 2012 – GlaxoSmithKline acquired CellZome (German biotech company) 2012 – GlaxoSmithKline acquired worldwide rights to Alitretinoin (eczema drug) 2012 – GlaxoSmithKline plead guilty to criminal charges in the US & agreed to pay $3 billion, in what was the largest settlement until then between the Justice Department and a drug company (Paxil & Wellbutrin) 2012 – GlaxoSmithKline settlement (making false claims about Avandia) included criminal fine of $242,612,800 & civil settlement of $657 million 2013 – GlaxoSmithKline acquired Human Genome Sciences (HGS) 2013 – GlaxoSmithKline sold its beverage division to Suntory (Lucozade & Ribena – not Horlicks) 2013 – Chinese authorities accused GlaxoSmithKline of funneling HK$3.8 billion in kickbacks to GSK managers, doctors, hospitals & others who prescribed their drugs since 2007. Four executives were arrested & claims doctors were bribed with cash/sexual favors. In 2014 Chinese court found GlaxoSmithKline guilty of bribery & imposed a fine of $490 million 2014 – GlaxoSmithKline invested $1 billion in its Indian pharmaceutical unit, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals 2014 – GlaxoSmithKline applied for regulatory approval for the first malaria vaccine. 2014 – GlaxoSmithKline made deal with Novartis (selling their cancer business & acquiring Novartis’ vaccine business) 2014 – UK’s Serious Fraud Office (SFO) opened a criminal inquiry into GlaxoSmithKline’s sales practices (collaborating with Chinese authorities) 2014 – US Department of Justice was investigating GlaxoSmithKline with reference to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. 2015 – GlaxoSmithKline acquired GlycoVaxyn (Swiss pharmaceutical company) 2015 – GlaxoSmithKline divested 2 meningitis drugs to Pfizer (Nimenrix & Mencevax) 2015 – Philip Hampton became chairman @ GlaxoSmithKline (from Royal Bank of Scotland) 2016 – The UK Competition and Markets Authority fined GlaxoSmithKline over £37 million for price fixing 2017 – Patrick Vallance left GlaxoSmithKline to become UK Government’s Chief Scientific Adviser 2017 – Emma Walmsley became CEO (from L’Oreal) 2017 – GlaxoSmithKline increased stake in its Saudi Arabian unit, taking control from Banaja KSA Holding Company 2017 GlaxoSmithKline opens GSK House Asian headquarters in Singapore 2018 – GlaxoSmithKline divested its portfolio of gene therapy drugs to Orchard Therapeutics 2018 – GlaxoSmithKline sold (Indian based) GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare business to Unilever (majority cash transaction, remaining balance paid via 5.7% of Hindustan Unilever Limited (which they divested immediately) 2018 – GlaxoSmithKline acquired Tesaro (oncology specialists – ovarian cancer treatment, Zejula) 2018 – GlaxoSmithKline & Pfizer combined their consumer healthcare divisions into a single entity (GSK retained a 68%) – leading to a demerger & listing of joint venture with two publicly traded companies (pharmaceuticals/R&D & consumer healthcare) 2019 – GlaxoSmithKline divested RabAvert (rabies vaccine) & Encepur (tick-borne encephalitis vaccine) to Bavarian Nordic 2019 – GlaxoSmithKline acquired Sitari Pharmaceuticals (transglutaminase 2 small molecule program for celiac disease)